Depending on the case scenario, the mannequins’ vital signs and other organ functions including heart rhythm are controlled by highly skilled facilitators via computer softwares that come with the mannequins ( About the Simulation Center, n.d., par

Depending on the case scenario, the mannequins’ vital signs and other organ functions including heart rhythm are controlled by highly skilled facilitators via computer softwares that come with the mannequins ( About the Simulation Center, n.d., par

She actually is member of a literature group and usually arranges their meetings in our house. She actually is a great cook and often indulges us with new tasty exotic dishes. In addition, she actually is a well-groomed lady, goes in for sports, and it is a pleasure for her to make us proud of her good shape. My mother is a caring woman, a person that never rejects to help one solve a difficult problem. She says that sharing feelings and emotions makes people feel satisfied and calm, and this is the purpose of being and making people happy. My father, in his turn, has a decent and interesting job that he likes, and that helps him to produce for his family. In such a long period of marriage, they remain so loving and affectionate to each other, that it is my duty to wish everybody is so happy. They know how to entertain themselves without wasting money and how to create comfortable conditions for their family and guests.

Examples of Unhappiness

One of my good friends always has thought that all the problems and troubles happening to her are the result of her own mistakes. Being too absorbed in her own problems and completely immersed in self-analysis, she can not be integrated with the society, with the people around, even the close ones. My friend does not understand or does not want to believe the fact that the source of the problems is not in her herself but in her disintegration with the world. She actually is desperately trying to find out the decision, recollecting the latest events in search for the mistake she might have recently made. Nonetheless, being occupied with these concerns, she cannot enjoy daily life and remains unhappy. No matter how hard her close people try to help her, the only thing they do is helping in search for the mistakes, not seeing the root of the problem. What exactly which might have helped: communication with friends and other methods of distraction seem unsatisfying and inappropriate to her. Unfortunately, we cannot explain her how distant she actually is becoming as it is too difficult to reach out to a closed person. Another example of an unhappy person is a girl I know, though she actually is not my close friend. She actually is an example of a lucky person, who’s a successful career and a good-looking partner and seems to be the embodiment of a perfect life, always looking happy and smiling to everybody. This girl can afford plenty, and it is completely her own merit, as she has been working hard since an extremely young age. She actually is a real soul of the party, bringing excitement and positive emotions to people around.an essay about myself Nonetheless, the attentive person would notice sadness in her eyes. When she becomes thoughtful for a moment, her face expression extremely changes. I know none of her friends who seemed to be worried about this peculiarity. Nonetheless, when I asked one of them what is happening to her, he answered, that the difficult times she had experienced in her past imprinted the deep sadness inside her. Although, according to the girl’s friends, she does not want to discuss any problems, I consider it selfish for the close people to ignore the internal division in a person so dear to them. Thereby, having a life high in friends and success cannot make a person totally happy and save him/her from being disintegrated with himself/herself.

Strong Self-determination

Adding to the example of my parents as happy people, who seem to be integrated with themselves and with the society, i could definitely say that I feel happy too. Although, I do not have everything I would like to have, or just cannot afford it, it does not add any weigh to my self-determination. It does not make me feel deprived of something, but makes me appreciate everything I have. I was brought up by loving and caring people, who have always helped me in difficult situations and have been interested in the state of my affairs, in the goals I set. It is difficult to convey how happy and thankful I am for having them. We reside in hard times, whenever environment therefore the people around have a great influence on a personal identity formation, and in case the foundation laid in a child by parents is weak, he or she would possibly take this world in a wrong way, from the words and actions a child sees around, which are not always right ones. I feel harmony in me and enjoy the world. I like sharing emotions with close people and they love me back. If this is what makes up pleasure, then I am definitely happy.

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In the origins of ritual forms of amorous behavior (XI century), seniors were patronized poets, and additionally they were customers of tales of chivalry. As an example, commissioned by Count Philip of Flanders Chretien de Troyes wrote the novel “Perceval”; commissioned by Mary of Champagne, he had written “Lancelot, or the Knight of the Carts”.  Subsequently, whenever reader was accustomed to such products, it offers become a lucrative business, especially these days. Philosophy and literature of the romantics have created a special romantic notion of love, known as “romantic love”. Romantic love, in their understanding, is something ideal, sublime, and eternal. Romantic literature and poetry created a veritable cult of love as the highest and almost the mysterious value rising above all earthly conventions.123helpme cancel account Nonetheless, romantic love as a spiritual and mysterious affinity knows no boundaries. The real attitude of people is not a prerequisite criterion of usefulness therefore the moral sense for it. Soon after the French Revolution, idea was formed that marriage should be the results of romantic love. Now, especially in the English-speaking countries, this idea is taken for granted, and many of people are not even aware that once it was revolutionary (Johnson 93).

Up to the twentieth century, romantic love was the province of the upper class only. Later, it won within the masses, while constantly undergoing transformation and increasingly moving away from their initial forms. Nobel Prize laureate Bertrand Russell considered that in america, the romantic view of marriage was accepted in earnest as opposed to other countries, and as a result, there are the rules and customs based on the sentimental fantasies of old maids, a huge number of divorces, and happy marriages are extremely rare. In the continuation of this idea, Erich Fromm believed that romantic love was unknown to the Indians of North America and now, in the third generation, full-blooded but assimilated Indian who grew up among whites, went to their school and then to college or university, falls in love in the same way once the conquerors of his ancestors. This Indian easily masters new physical passions unknown to his grandparents (Russell 86).

Love at First Sight

In the opinion of Anthony Giddens, romantic love can also appear “at first sight”, but it should plainly distinguish this response of romantic love from the inner compulsion of sexual-erotic attraction in passionate love (Giddens 144). The first sight is a communicative gesture, intuitive grasp of the qualities of the other. Accurate illustration of this Giddens thesis regarding romantic love can function as text of a popular song «Strangers in the night» by Frank Sinatra. In his song, night passers get accustomed to each other, catching sights in the hope to have time to “pick up” someone until the outcome of the night; but that is just a casual sight, counter smile, only one dance, and – the love for a lifetime. Giddens thinks that romantic love is feminized. It was feminized not so much in the sense that it became available to women or recognized between women, but that the ideal of romantic love is connected with the forms of life which can be traditionally associated with women’s social roles and with women’s destination (Giddens 145).

Love from viewpoint of researchers

From the viewpoint of researchers, romantic love is considered generally as a negative event, but opinion in its occasion may vary in the arts and media. For example, in the song “You can’t hurry love” by The Supremes love is seen as something vital and necessary, without which the girl in the song will not be able to continue her life, and mother comforts her saying that she cannot hasten the love. This song demonstrates that love is not only a feeling in it classic sense, but also it can take the form of thoughts about bright future, that once the girl can find her love. The most surprising thing is that these thoughts can satisfy her consciousness even in the event she does not find the love. That is, this song shows us that for some people love lies in the search of the love. But then Anastasia Touefix in her article “The Right Chemistry” considers that love is nothing more but dopamine, norepinephrine and phenylethylamine. These chemicals our brain produces in euphoria that occurs as a results of falling in love. From the viewpoint of Touefix, love is a consequence of chemical reactions, which like any other chemical reaction will sooner or later arrive at an end. The poem “Tonight i could write the saddest lines” by Pablo Neruda shows completely different perspective. If “You can’t hurry love” shows us such kind of love as “love in the future”, so “Tonight i could write the saddest lines” shows such kind of love as “love in the past”. The main character of the poem loves his memories about the girl more then that girl actually. This shows such sort of love that is possible when a person has overly romanticizing memories, and falls in love with them, however in the object of his past or present relationship.

Robert Alex Johnson, Psy.D., is confident that the poets and writers have converted romantic love into a religion, beginning from the middle of the twentieth century (Johnson 158). He describes romantic love as a psychological set, a variety of philosophy, ideals, attitudes, and expectations. The purpose of this love is not to love someone but to be in love. Johnson thinks that earthly love sees the personality in the other person and builds a individual relationship with him. But romantic love sees the person as a performer in the role of a well-known drama. Earthly love allows a man to experience a woman in a full and independent identity, and he provides the necessary support in it. Romantic love keeps saying what a woman should be in terms of romanticism. Even though the man is in the power of romantic love, he supports the woman only as long as she seeks to reflect his projected ideal. In accordance to Robert Alex Johnson, romantic love never brings pleasure in relationships with people for what they are (Johnson 204).

Other researchers also compare love with religiosity. According to sociologist Ulrich Beck, many individuals talk today about love and family as in yesteryear centuries God was spoken of. He thinks that the desire for deliverance and tenderness, an attempt to find the mystery of desire in the empty text of hits – every one of these is breathing of everyday religiosity. Transformed into a religion, romantic love has fascinated not only poets, writers and wide narrow-minded communities, but also Christian preachers. They are sure romantic love can be as old as the world, because it appeared in the Garden of Eden, whenever first man and the initial woman looked at each other. Preachers are saying that people must understand that the God gifted people the ability of strong and passionate emotions that the lovers are experiencing. Preachers find obvious the fact that God wanted people’s sensory abilities to reach full development and unity in marriage (Johnson 225).

According to the researchers, nowadays 73% of women claim that as a result of constant open discussion of sex in media, love has lost its romance, and women lose their mysteriousness (“forbidden fruit tastes sweeter”). As a result, their peers of the contrary gender do not show proper attention and respect towards women. They cannot or do not want to take care the way it was done 20-30 years ago. As a result, relations between the sexes have lost all the romance and poetry. In their turn, 78% of men complained that due to the feminist movement, the behavior of modern women makes the need to render them any favors disappear, but there is an urgent need to establish itself in its very own masculinity (Johnson 240).

R. A. Johnson thinks that in the countries with an individualistic culture (like USA), the cult of “romantic love” was created. He considered that when lovers are certainly attached to each other, they want to expand to the extent possible the range of joint activities. Even the most mundane and difficult work lovers convert into a joyful and attractive episode of life. Romantic love, to the contrary, lasts exactly as long as each of the lovers can resist “on high” until the money runs out and entertainment stops giving pleasure (Johnson 248).

Professor of anthropology at Rutgers University Helen Fisher found out that romantic love is characterized by the release of dopamine and lasts an average 18 – 30 months. She believes that a person has no innate gift to distinguish the love of other pseudo-love feelings and disorders. A person may learn it only throughout the years from his/her own experience.

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Since the introduction associated with Internet into our daily lives therefore the technological revolution that it brought with it, the mundane has been completely redefined. Communication itself is becoming different and so has the education. All universities have entered anew, digital age to some degree. Online education is slowly replacing traditional education and there’s nothing […]

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Since its breakthrough from the late 1960s into the early 1990s, different types of simulators, from low fidelity to high fidelity, are now commercially available and used by universities and medical centers worldwide (Good, 2003, p.4). Fidelity refers to the degree of accuracy the simulator resembles the physical, environmental and psychological properties of a real object or being (Beaubien & Baker, 2004, p.i52). Such that low fidelity simulators are lifeless models used in traditional teaching solutions to train students for specific tasks like endotracheal intubation and cardiac compression. The limitations of the older simulators observed by Gaba and De Anda (1988) includes absence of mannequin movement and minimal or confusing physical signs (p.387). On the other hand, the high fidelity simulators are the most realistic life-sized mannequins capable of the most varied levels and quantities of responses, mimic authentic changes in body functions based on the specific problem case and display interacting physiological and pharmacologic parameters on actual life scenarios (Gaba, 2000). Examples of the high fidelity simulators are the ISTAN full body mannequin, Laerdal’s SimMan Universal Patient Simulator, Gaumard’s Susie S2000 therefore the Human Patient Simulator by Medical Education Technologies, Inc., which are all “computer-model-instructor-driven” units with elaborately programmed cardiovascular, pulmonary, pharmacological, metabolic, genitourinary and neurological systems (METI, HPS, n.d., p.3) that allow them to exhibit blinking, pupillary response, chest movement and breath sounds, palpable pulses and heart tones, bleeding and body fluid excretion, and accurately imitate human responses to medications, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, ventilation and catheterization. The mannequins are attached by cords to the control system, which is a laptop computer, a signal generator and a monitor where vital signs are exhibited (SimMan Universal Patient Simulator, n.d., par. 1). Depending on the case scenario, the mannequins’ vital signs and other organ functions including heart rhythm are controlled by highly skilled facilitators via computer softwares that come with the mannequins ( About the Simulation Center, n.d., par. 5) hence they do not require one more interactive ECG simulator to manipulate the heart rhythm. The simulators monitor and record all actions taken from simple vital signs taking to more complex interventions like compressions and intubation and mount the expected commensurate response as dictated by the computer programs. All responses including blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and 5-lead electrocardiogram are likewise recorded. These records can easily be printed and reviewed by the facilitator and student to enhance the learning experience.

Despite their many features that promise better teaching methods for students, the high fidelity simulators do not come without their limitations. The first limitation is its high cost. The Susie S200 set including the cordless mannequin, wireless tablet PC, software scenarios, blood pressure cuff, collar, instructions and CDROM cost $27,995 (Gaumard, n.d.).. In contrast, the one of the very most widely used simulator, the Human Patient Simulator cost around $175,000 (Karmin $ Schmidt, 2005) including the mannequin, computer, monitor, HPS6™ Software, 30 Pre-programmed Adult Patient Profiles and 60 Pre-programmed Simulated Clinical Experiences (METI, HPS, n.d., p.4)

Also, the simulator response is largely dependent on the software that contains its programming. Although all types of patient profiles and case scenarios is created, modifying the simulator’s responses is determined by the availability of the pre-designed software required to enable the specific programming. The Human Patient Simulator package comes with modules including 60 pre-programmed simulated clinical experiences, appropriate corresponding intervention scenarios and software application (METI, Learning, p.4). If one of the modules as well as its software like the ACLS Learning Module based on the 2006 AHA instructions or the interactive EKG module is unavailable then the simulator’s heart cannot be prompted to mimic emergency cardiac cases like Acute Coronary Syndrome, Acute Ischemic CVA and rhythm disturbances by a simple click on the laptop keyboard. The simulator can still be used to perform and evaluate the other parts of the ACLS course like vital signs taking, IV line insertions, mouth-to-mask ventilation with the resulting chest rise and finally chest compressions though simulated response to this may not be seen. To be able to use the simulator for the other parts of the ACLS course, someone will need to design the six scenarios (asystole, ventricular fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, symptomatic bradycardia, and pulseless electrical activity) of the course based on the ones found in the AHA Instructor Manual then program them into its accompanying software like the HPS6™. Hence training of present personnel or hiring of trained ones is required for the proper use and maintenance of the simulator.

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Changes Expected in the Nursing Profession

In the next decade, the provision of healthcare services is dictated by economic efficiency majorly as a result of ever-changing economic condition. Though predicted by the Canadian Nurses Association back in 1981, changes in the practice of nursing is necessitated by the persistent importance of efficient and affordable but quality healthcare services (Kalisch, 2004). In response to such demands, the nursing profession will decide for optimal specialized utilization of the healthcare personnel by developing competitive new entry points into the healthcare system. In the next ten years or maybe more, greater changes are expected in provision of healthcare from the expensive treatment procedure to long-term campaigns promoting preventive approaches and healthy living (American Nurses Association, 2001).

Additionally, once the world experiences technological transformation, communication and health provision facilities may also be improving. Equipments used by the nursing personnel may also be being revolutionized. These modifications or developments in the materials and nursing equipments are expected to simplify and efficiently boost the practice of nursing. Besides, the advancements in communication and management systems are expected to completely change nursing human resources issues, work environment quality, information and services access, therefore, improving care delivery efficiency (Chikky& Black, 2007).

Presently, a considerable wide range of the patients in various health facilities exhibit disgust, hostility and disillusionment, especially about the services that they receive. As a result, many nurses constantly complain of dissatisfaction and burnout, which directly affect the grade of services that they give the patients. It is very clear that the affected nurses are active in open forums incorporating and advancing the views of their colleagues with the aim of finding a treatment for these persistent challenges. There is absolutely no doubt that the perfect solution is to these challenges lie deeply in the provision of holistic nursing care (Kalisch, 2004). Though still underdeveloped, this approach may yield positive results in the next fifteen years as it incorporates the provision of psychological and physical care to patients rather than managing a particular condition or condition. Consequently, cases of burnout and frustrations is minimized, once the nursing personnel is built with the holistic nursing skills necessary for giving optimal care comfort to their patients (Hayakawa, Ogasawara & Katz, 2007).

The current healthcare industry is experiencing various issues and challenges such as staff or personnel shortage, operational deficits and credentialing. Even though the prospects for future of nursing can be uncertain, current proposals of the Health Care Scheme may yield positive results. By increasing the number of nurses, the risks and workload on nursing care is minimized to a manageable level (Mahaffey, 2004). Coupled with the possible specialization criteria, definite care provision will guarantee quality assurance. Once the role of nurses is transformed from actual caring for the patient to coordinating care provision with families of the patient, more time is allocated to serious care cases rather than the minor cases, that can be handled by family unit members in a home care setting (Chikky & Black, 2007). As care provision complexity reduces, nurses will only have to educate the patient’s household members on the basics of healthcare and save yourself time on non-nursing roles.

Expected Nursing Specialties in the Next Decade

Nursing education has no limits. Certified nursing is critical in maintaining quality of healthcare provision to clients. To improve quality of care, specialization is necessary. In the next decade, Holistic Nursing will be a necessity in understanding the physical and psychological care for clients. Rather than just concentrating on the ailment care, the attention can be provided to psychological and social interfaces of condition of a client (Hayakawa, Ogasawara & Katz, 2007). Further, Domestic Animals Nursing care specialty will certainly surface as a result of current influx of pet diseases and ailments. This group of nurses will concentrate on the provision of home care education to pet owners and care to be applied on a sick pet and post treatment recovery program. In addition, as a result of commonplace rates of cancer infections, nursing specialty in Cancer Care Nursing “Oncology Nursing” will surface to simply help in the management of many patients who have been diagnosed with cancerous ailments (Chikky & Black, 2007). As specialization is made necessary, the above specialties will only deal with the care for these ailments, which are very common in different communities.

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Culturally Relevant Healthcare

There is no doubt that practicing as a nurse in the town of San Antonio, Texas, it is crucial and important for one to understand the culture of the Hispanic population who are the majority residence in order to give culturally relevant care. Hispanics are particularly sensitive and painful on issues linked to moral values, tradition, Spanish language, and religion. To understand this community, serious commitment to multiplicity on language issues is very necessary. To avoid or avert the chances of language barrier, this group requires additional interpretation services for clarity (Chikky & Black, 2007). In addition, since this group forms the minority clique in America, they tend to share strong community bonds on inter and intra personality interactions. To win their trust, it’s important to develop culture specific informal and formal companies as a means of balancing sensitivity and culture in the provision of healthcare services. Besides, this community consists of a large number of those who dropped out of schools and colleges. Therefore, apart from the verbal communication, non-verbal communication strategies such as gestures, demonstration, symbolism, written translations and pictures can be vitally important (American Nurses Association, 2001).

Reform on Community Healthcare to Fit the Older Clients

In order to satisfy the healthcare needs of the elderly, the community healthcare system will have to be transformed to be in line with the special needs of this particular group. To begin with, this group requires interpretation and refined non-verbal communication tools. Besides, they are sensitive to care issues surrounding culture, norms and religion. Consequently, the community healthcare system should be restructured to accommodate the behavioral aspects related to tradition, especially on dieting (American Nurses Association, 2001). The objective is to increase the choices available for adequate and optimal care. Nonetheless, fear and lack of experience are serious barriers to properly handling older clients. To reverse this, the community healthcare system should foster creativity and proper adult care training to equip the nurses with these special skills unique to old clients. In fact, to achieve this, mobile technology should be applied to produce culturally and timely home elevators health to old in their homes (Chikky & Black, 2007).

In my work place, at a nursing and rehabilitation facility in San Antonio, Texas, majority of my fellow staff members are Hispanic and Black Americans. In fact, only thirteen white and non-Hispanic people form area of the entire personnel. Therefore, being area of the thirteen, we form the minority group. San Antonio is widely dominated by the Hispanic population and this is reflected in the fact that many of my co-workers speak English with the Latin ascent.  Nearly fifty five percent of all staff is of Latin origin, thirty percent black Americans additionally the rest white non- Hispanic. The Hispanics are particularly social but conservative on the topics or issues of culture, norms and religious view. Intrestingly, nearly all of them are Catholics. On the other hand, the black Americans prefer unique communication technique comprising of coded language sounding explicit on the first impressing. Due to minority issue, the white non-Hispanic nurses have learnt to co-exist with others in an interactive and open manner (Mahaffey, 2004).

In sum, to realize the much-needed reforms in the provision of healthcare, meaningful application of modern technology, technical assistance, and awareness campaigns are necessary and crucial. Besides, cultural relevance and knowledge encourages quality service provision. Moreover, structural reforms, specialization, holistic nursing, partnerships with players in the care provision are essential in transforming nursing career into a noble profession.

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A latest yet contentious response to youth tobacco usage is the implementation of local and state laws that put charges against youth for the use, purchase, or possession of tobacco products. A number of tobacco control activists have protested this advance as an effort to shift responsibility and attention away from sellers who sell the products to young ones. Nevertheless, this shift gained noteworthy force throughout the 1990s. As Giovino and Wakefield (2000) reported, the figure of states having legislation limiting possession of tobacco products amid minors increased from six in 1988 to thirty two in 2001. The penalties connected with these laws differ broadly, including reception of a ticket, appearance in court, a fine, loss of driving rights, suspension from school, referral to a smoking cessation program, and other court-ordered reactions.

Smoking in Malaysia was initially addressed in legislation involving a general caution message on each Malaysia cigarette wrapping in 1976. Cigarette smoking bans in community places was implemented in the 1980. Selling cigarettes to individuals under the age of 18 is becoming forbidden since 1994. The advertisement and promotion of tobacco was banned in 2003; ever since January 1995, screening cigarette wrapping in advertisements was in fact prohibited, and print media promotion was in fact limited to only one page.

Malaysia is ranked in position 71 based on the per capita smoking use, with an average of 650 cigarettes smoked yearly per adult.

Tobacco has an unenthusiastic effect on nearly all organs of the human body. According to the Malaysia Department of Health and Human Services, use of tobacco is the leading avoidable cause of death in the Malaysia, which results in about 443,000 deaths every year. Globally, recent studies also show that tobacco is accountable for around 6 million deaths every year.

The long-term consequences of smoking are wide. There are many diseases associated to smoking. It can cause the mouth and throat cancer and lung cancer, and might augment the risk for kidney cancer, stomach cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and bladder cancer. Around a third of all cancers are connected to tobacco use and 90 percent cases of lung cancer are associated to smoking. Smoking causes chronic disruptive pulmonary diseases (COPD) such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis among others, which are harsh lung damage. Smoking narrows blood vessels and lessens blood circulation, grudging the body of oxygen system and escalating the danger for heart problems. The studies have shown that non-smokers who are depicted to second-hand smoke are 25 percent more probable to have heart problems. It also doubles the danger for stroke and raises the danger for developing cataracts.

Smoking causes extra health threats for women. It raises the danger for rheumatoid arthritis and contributes to loss of bone compactness, raising the probability of spine and hip breakages in postmenopausal women. Smoking during pregnancy increases the health risks of the unborn baby. After birth, the peril for SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) doubles for infants exposed to second-hand smoke. Women of child-bearing age bracket who smoke have greater risks for impediments during pregnancy and higher rates of infertility.

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young ones and teenagers are especially susceptible to the hazards of smoking. Since their bodies are not completely mature, smoking hampers normal lung growth in those who start smoking as young ones or teenagers. Young individuals who smoke could become more captivated to cigarettes and face bigger risk for growing lung cancer compared to those who begin smoking later in life. Each day, roughly 5000 young ones below 18 years make an effort to smoke smoking for the first instance and 2000 become habitual smokers.

Smoking is strictly banned in hospitals and clinics, toilets and public lifts, airports, public transport, air-conditioned restaurants, educational institutions, government premises, Internet cafes, petrol stations, shopping complexes, and personal office spaces with shared air-conditioning; nevertheless, enforcement is a concern (Zarihah & Zain, 2007).

Smoking is, in general, forbidden on public transportation, apart from in air-conditioned places of ships and trains where food is served. It really is forbidden in particular workplaces and public places listed in the regulation including in places of work with a central air-conditioning system; education, health, cultural and government facilities, and enclosed stadiums. It is also banned on places with a service counter in financial institutions, banks, National Energy Company, post offices, and National Telecom Company. Smoking is allowable in discotheques, pubs, casinos, nightclubs, in designated smoking places, in air-conditioned eating areas and in non air-conditioned communal transport terminals.

There is an absolute ban on tobacco promotion, advertising, and sponsorship in Malaysia. Nevertheless, as a result of lack of explanation of tobacco promotion in the law, a number of tobacco promotions, such as retailer inducement programs, may not be included under the ban.